Advancements in science and engineering have occurred at a surprisingly rapid pace since the release of the seventh edition of this encyclopedia. Large portions of the reference have required comprehensive rewriting and new illustrations. Scores of new topics have been included to create this thoroughly updated eighth edition. The appearance of this new edition in 1994 marks the continuation of a tradition commenced well over a half-century ago in 1938 Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, First Edition, was published and welcomed by educators worldwide at a time when what we know today as modern science was just getting underway. The early encyclopedia was well received by students and educators alike during a critical time span when science became established as a major factor in shaping the progress and economy of individual nations and at the global level. A vital need existed for a permanent science reference that could be updated periodically and made conveniently available to audiences that numbered in the millions. The pioneering VNSE met these criteria and continues today as a reliable technical information source for making private and public decisions that present a backdrop of technical alternatives.CALCULATOR. Traditionally a device capable of performing arithmetic operations. Although the abacus, described in the next entry, ... calculators, which if desired are available in minipocket size configurationsafor example, the so- called credit card calculator. ... Numbers were to be stored on wheels, with ten distinguishable positions, and transferred by a system of racks to a central mill, or processor, anbsp;...
|Title||:||Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia|
|Author||:||Douglas M. Considine, Glenn D. Considine|
|Publisher||:||Springer Science & Business Media - 2013-12-11|