Low or negative pressure transients (also called surge or water hammer) create temporary opportunities for external chemical and microbial contaminants at higher pressure to enter the water distribution system, creating potential health hazard and potential weakening of distribution pipes, leading to failure. This study investigates how such events as power outages, pump shutdowns, valve operations, main flushing, firefighting, and main breaks can create significant rapid, temporary drops in system pressure. The report offers useful recommendations for using surge models to optimally locate pressure monitors and to minimize the occurrence and impact from low- and negative-pressure transients.Presence of hydropneumatic tanks, pump bypasses The addition of an appropriately sized hydropneumatic tank just downstream of pump stations can ... Stephenson (2002) and Thorley (2004) provide a comprehensive review of the steps involved for manually sizing hydropneumatic tanks (air vessels). It should ... All booster stations included in the different systems, were designed with a pump bypass.
|Title||:||Susceptibility of Distribution Systems to Negative Pressure Transients|
|Author||:||Kala Fleming, Joseph G. Dugandzik, Mark Lechavellier|
|Publisher||:||American Water Works Association - 2007-04-01|