Soaps and detergents are used frequently in our daily life. We use them to wash our hands and clean our clothes without ever really paying attention to how they work. Beneath the plain white surface of a bar of soap lies an intriguing history and a powerful chemistry. It has been said that amount of soap and detergent consumed in a country is a reliable measure of its civilizations. There was a time when these products were luxury; now it is a necessity. A disinfectant or agent that frees from infection is ordinarily a chemical agent which kills disease germs or other harmful microorganisms and is applied to inanimate objects. The specific way in which a disinfectant agent is used is dependent on both the desired objective and the infectious agent present. The term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents work because they are amphiphilic partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non polar). Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophillic, detergents are also foaming agents to varying degrees. Completely non polar solvents known as degreasers can also remove hydrophobic contaminants but may not dissolve in water because of a lack of polar elements. Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Soaps and detergents are very similar in their chemical properties. However, there is a significant difference between them; soaps are produced from natural products, and detergents are synthetic, or manmade. The market is expected to grow at rates ranging from under 4% to around 4.5%. These are very modest rates considering that the lifestyles not only of urbanites, but even of well off rural folks are changing at a very high pace. The analysts are expecting the industry to continue to grow in both the industrialized as well as developing nations. Some of the fundamentals of the book are technology of soap making, washing of saponified soap, plant for total soap making operation, construction materials for soap making plants, earth bleaching of oils, chemical bleaching, fatty acids, manufacture of framed soaps, manufacture of chips and flakes, manufacture of milled bars, the mazzoni process, floating soap bars, mixing of soap, chemicals used in soaps a detergents, alkylolamides, alkylolamides in shampoo formulations, chemistry of the alkylolamides, mono alkylolamides, di alkylolamides, pure dialkylolamides, phosphoxylated alkylolamides, sulphated alkylolamides, disinfectants and antiseptics, dry cleaning agents, etc. The present book contains formulae, processes of different types of soaps, detergents and disinfectants. These products have good demand in domestic as well as in International market. So there is a very good scope for new entrepreneurs to venture into this field. This book is an invaluable resource for entrepreneurs, technocrats and for those who want to diversify in to this field.The test for this stage consists of heating a small sample in an open dish to a boiling point of 158-160oC. When the drum is ... The sludge is then blown into a hopper from which it drops to centrifugals; the glycerin is returned to the evaporator, and the salt ... In this operation the salt-drum functions as a blow case . A rotaryanbsp;...
|Title||:||Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants Technology Handbook|
|Author||:||NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers|
|Publisher||:||NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES - 2007-10-01|