Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 61. Chapters: Transistor, Integrated circuit, Light-emitting diode, Semiconductor device, Solar cell, Opto-isolator, Multijunction photovoltaic cell, LED lamp, Shockley-Queisser limit, Power semiconductor device, Hot electron effect, Metal rectifier, Digital micromirror device, Position sensitive device, Natural Bridges National Monument Solar Power System, Haitz's Law, Solid-state lighting, Gate oxide, MOS composite static induction thyristor, Oxide thin film transistor, Semiconductor fuse, Oscillistor, Proper zero signal collector current. Excerpt: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for ...Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.
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