qThis report examines U.S. transportation's consumption of petroleum fuels and the public interest in reducing this consumption to enhance national energy security and help control emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Scientific analyses and models indicate a need to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of these gases by the middle of this century. Worldwide emissions reductions of up to 80 percent may be needed over the next four decades as a consequence. A response by the transportation sector to this energy and emissions challenge will be important, because the sector accounts for more than two-thirds of the petroleum consumed in the United States and produces between one-quarter and one-third of all the CO2 emissions attributable to the country's energy consumption. The report reviews policy options to bring about desired energy consumption and GHG emissions reductions from U.S. transportation over the next half century. It is not intended to model or quantify the impacts of each policy option over time but instead to examine the means by which each influences behavior and the demand for and supply of energy- and emissions-saving technology, particularly in the modes of transportation with the greatest effect on the sector's consumption of petroleum and emissions of GHGs. In choosing among policies, elected officials must take into account many factors that could not be examined in this study, such as the full range of safety, economic, and environmental implications of their choices; therefore, the report does not recommend a specific suite of policies to pursue. Instead, the emphasis is on assessing each policy approach with regard to its applicability across transportation modes and its ability to affect the total amount of energy-intensive transportation activity, the efficiency of transportation vehicles, and GHG emissions characteristics of the sector's energy supply. For each policy option, consideration is given to the challenges associated with implementation and with the production of large savings in energy and GHG emissions over a time span of decades.q--pub. desc.box 2-3 Fuel Cost Calculus of a Taxicab Owner Consider the different ways that fuel costs influence the decision making of a taxicab ... But the average taxicab is driven many more miles each year than is the typical private automobilea58, 333 miles for the former versus ... A growing (but still small) number of taxicabs are hybrid vehicles. ... aThese weights are for the 2009 Ford Crown Victoria and the 2010 Toyota Camry. ... /upload/09_September_Petroleum_Facts_at_a_Glance. pdf.
|Title||:||Policy Options for Reducing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation|
|Publisher||:||Transportation Research Board - 2011|