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Few worlds are as tantalizing and enigmatic as Europa, whose complex icy surface intimates the presence of an ocean below. Europa beckons for our understanding and future exploration, enticing us with the possibilities of a water-rich environment and the potential for life beyond Earth. This new volume in the Space Science Series, with more than 80 contributing authors, reveals the discovery and current understanding of EuropaA•s icy shell, subsurface ocean, presumably active interior, and myriad inherent interactions within the Jupiter environment. Europa is the foundation upon which the coming decades of scientific advancement and exploration of this world will be built, making it indispensable for researchers, students, and all who hold a passion for exploration.For Earth, the current obliquity is 23.439Ad (Lieske et ai, 1977), which sets the locations of the tropics ... et al, 1998), and oscillates between 22.1Ad and 24.5Ad with a 41-k.y. period (Berger et al, 1992; Laskar et ai, 1993), due to lunar and solar torques on Eartha#39;s oblate figure. ... Most of the remainder of this section will attempt to explain that connection. ... In terms of the dimensionless polar moment C c = (3) MR2 the Galilean satellite values are {0.379, 0.346, 0.31 1, 0.355}, for Io , Europa, anbsp;...

Author:Robert T. Pappalardo, William B. McKinnon, K. Khurana
Publisher:University of Arizona Press - 2009


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