Electromigration in ULSI Interconnections provides a comprehensive description of the electro migration in integrated circuits. It is intended for both beginner and advanced readers on electro migration in ULSI interconnections. It begins with the basic knowledge required for a detailed study on electro migration, and examines the various interconnected systems and their evolution employed in integrated circuit technology. The subsequent chapters provide a detailed description of the physics of electro migration in both Al- and Cu-based Interconnections, in the form of theoretical, experimental and numerical modeling studies. The differences in the electro migration of Al- and Cu-based interconnections and the corresponding underlying physical mechanisms for these differences are explained. The test structures, testing methodology, failure analysis methodology and statistical analysis of the test data for the experimental studies on electro migration are presented in a concise and rigorous manner.Methods of numerical modeling for the interconnect electro migration and their applications to the understanding of electro migration physics are described in detail with the aspects of material properties, interconnection design, and interconnect process parameters on the electro migration performances of interconnects in ULSI further elaborated upon. Finally, the extension of the studies to narrow interconnections is introduced, and future challenges on the study of electro migration are outlined and discussed.Quantum mechanical theory of electromigration the residual resistivity dipole ( RRD) field and the carrier density modulation (CDM) effect. ... in the velocity of the carriers and consequently a change in conductivity near a defect which implies a local change in electric field. ... [C. T. Sah, (1996) Fundamentals of Solid-State Electronics a Solution Manual, World Scientific Publishing Company: 174-176.
|Title||:||Electromigration in Ulsi Interconnections|
|Author||:||Cher Ming Tan|
|Publisher||:||World Scientific - 2010|