A high speed 8-pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) transceiver operates at a 12 Gbps system raw data rate in simulation. In brief, the transmitter is a 3-bit DIA converter with serializers converting parallel data to serial data, and the receiver is a 3-bit A/D converter including de-serializer. Because a symbol is equal to 3-bit for 8-PAM and the 14S/16S encoding scheme is used, the effective data transfer rate is 10.5 Gbps (= 12 Gbps x 14/16). The 8-PAM Gray encoder converts a 3-bit input to a symbol using the Gray encoding scheme. The Gray code only has a 1-bit difference between two adjacent codes and it is less sensitive to noise, compared to the binary code. The clock recovery is composed of a phase detector, a finite state machine, phase selection switches, phase interpolators with good linearity, duty cycle correctors, and a low jitter phase locked loop (PLL). The chip size of this transceiver is 3400 x 2550 mum2 and total estimated power consumption is 330 mW in simulation. Test chips are fabricated in a 0.13-mum UMC CMOS process. The measured phase noise of the VCO at 1 MHz offset is -90.72 dBc/Hz at 1.899 GHz. The VCO consumes 4 mW at a 1 V power supply. The RMS and peak-to-peak jitter of the PLL are 4.05 ps and 28.18ps at 2 GHz and a 1 V power supply. The measurement results on DNL and 1NL of the phase interpolator are smaller than 0.27 LSB and 0.68 LSB, respectively. The measured DNL and 1 L of the 3-bit A/D converter are 0.36 LSB and 0.36 LSB, respectively. The power consumption of the 3-stage comparators in the A/D converter is 38 mW at a 1 V power supply. The eye opening width and height of the TX output are approximately 0.46 ns and 65 mV at 3 Gbps and a 1.0 V analog power supply, respectively.8.2.4 3-bit A/D converter test Waveform generator (Tektronix AWG2041) DC Supply (Agilent E3648A) Logic analyzer (Agilent 16902A) ft! IMP I I OUTP Sfrilsa#39; iSR inn ADC 0UTN CLK generator (Agilent 81134A) Fig. 8.16: Test environment foranbsp;...
|Title||:||A 10 Gb/s 8-PAM Transceiver in a 0.13-mum CMOS Process|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2006|